Sleep Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a periodic, readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity.
Ejaculation The expulsion of seminal fluid, thick white fluid containing spermatozoa, from the male genital tract.
Citric acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which underg
Cognition The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.
Coagulation The sequential process in which the multiple coagulation factors of the blood interact, ultimately resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot; it may be divided into three stages: stage 1, the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic prothrom
Apoptosis A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an ex
Menstruation The cyclic, physiologic discharge through the vagina of blood and endometrial tissues from the nonpregnant uterus.
Metabolism the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms
Circadian rhythm any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
Memory information stored in the mind, or the mental processes involved in receiving, storing, and retrieving this information
RNA splicing The process of removing sections of the primary RNA transcript to remove sequences not present in the mature form of the RNA and joining the remaining sections to form the mature form of the RNA.
Cellular respiration The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
Operant conditioning learning to anticipate future events on the basis of past experience with the consequences of one's own behavior; behaviors are modified by the effect they produce (i.e., reward or punishment)
Glycolysis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP and the reduction of NAD(P) to NAD(P)H. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate t
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