Glycolysis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP and the reduction of NAD(P) to NAD(P)H. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate t
Sleep Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a periodic, readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity.
Citric acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which underg
Circadian rhythm any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours.
Fermentation The anaerobic enzymatic conversion of organic compounds, especially carbohydrates, coupling the oxidation and reduction of NAD/H and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Metabolism the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms
Ejaculation The expulsion of seminal fluid, thick white fluid containing spermatozoa, from the male genital tract.
Coagulation The sequential process in which the multiple coagulation factors of the blood interact, ultimately resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot; it may be divided into three stages: stage 1, the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic prothrom
Gene expression The process in which a gene's sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for prote
Apoptosis A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an ex
RNA splicing The process of removing sections of the primary RNA transcript to remove sequences not present in the mature form of the RNA and joining the remaining sections to form the mature form of the RNA.
DNA replication The cellular metabolic process in which a cell duplicates one or more molecules of DNA. DNA replication begins when specific sequences, known as origins of replication, are recognized and bound by initiation proteins, and ends when the original DNA m
Wnt signaling pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell and ending with a change in cell state.
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