Citric acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which underg
Glycolysis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP and the reduction of NAD(P) to NAD(P)H. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate t
Cellular respiration The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
Cell cycle The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material follow
Coagulation The sequential process in which the multiple coagulation factors of the blood interact, ultimately resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot; it may be divided into three stages: stage 1, the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic prothrom
Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
Ejaculation The expulsion of seminal fluid, thick white fluid containing spermatozoa, from the male genital tract.
Electron transport chain A process in which a series of electron carriers operate together to transfer electrons from donors to any of several different terminal electron acceptors to generate a transmembrane electrochemical gradient.
Action potential A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with
Autophagy cellular catabolic process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm
Cognition The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.
DNA methylation The covalent transfer of a methyl group to either N-6 of adenine or C-5 or N-4 of cytosine.
Fermentation The anaerobic enzymatic conversion of organic compounds, especially carbohydrates, coupling the oxidation and reduction of NAD/H and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Menstrual cycle A type of ovulation cycle where the endometrium is shed if pregnancy does not occur.
Bioluminescence The production of light by certain enzyme-catalyzed reactions in cells.
Gene expression The process in which a gene's sequence is converted into a mature gene product or products (proteins or RNA). This includes the production of an RNA transcript as well as any processing to produce a mature RNA product or an mRNA or circRNA (for prote