Memory information stored in the mind, or the mental processes involved in receiving, storing, and retrieving this information
Citric acid cycle A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which underg
Metabolism the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms
Ejaculation The expulsion of seminal fluid, thick white fluid containing spermatozoa, from the male genital tract.
Cellular respiration The enzymatic release of energy from inorganic and organic compounds (especially carbohydrates and fats) which either requires oxygen (aerobic respiration) or does not (anaerobic respiration).
Glycolysis The chemical reactions and pathways resulting in the breakdown of a carbohydrate into pyruvate, with the concomitant production of a small amount of ATP and the reduction of NAD(P) to NAD(P)H. Glycolysis begins with the metabolism of a carbohydrate t
Action potential A process in which membrane potential cycles through a depolarizing spike, triggered in response to depolarization above some threshold, followed by repolarization. This cycle is driven by the flow of ions through various voltage gated channels with
Fermentation The anaerobic enzymatic conversion of organic compounds, especially carbohydrates, coupling the oxidation and reduction of NAD/H and the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Coagulation The sequential process in which the multiple coagulation factors of the blood interact, ultimately resulting in the formation of an insoluble fibrin clot; it may be divided into three stages: stage 1, the formation of intrinsic and extrinsic prothrom
Wnt signaling pathway The series of molecular signals initiated by binding of a Wnt protein to a frizzled family receptor on the surface of the target cell and ending with a change in cell state.
Apoptosis A programmed cell death process which begins when a cell receives an internal (e.g. DNA damage) or external signal (e.g. an extracellular death ligand), and proceeds through a series of biochemical events (signaling pathway phase) which trigger an ex
Cognition The operation of the mind by which an organism becomes aware of objects of thought or perception; it includes the mental activities associated with thinking, learning, and memory.
Autophagy cellular catabolic process in which cells digest parts of their own cytoplasm
Operant conditioning learning to anticipate future events on the basis of past experience with the consequences of one's own behavior; behaviors are modified by the effect they produce (i.e., reward or punishment)
Gluconeogenesis The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol.
Asexual reproduction The biological process in which new individuals are produced by either a single cell or a group of cells, in the absence of any sexual process.
Sleep Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a periodic, readily reversible state of reduced awareness and metabolic activity.
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